AHS Blog | Alaska's Historic Canneries
By: Bob King, Juneau
Inside an abandoned storage unit auctioned off in Everett, WA, last year, the successful bidder found, among other things, a folder that included some high school football programs dating back to the early 1950s and a small, 6 by 4 inch, yellow metal plate: a 1949 Alaska non-resident fisherman’s license. Not recognizing the item, he reached out to the Alaska Department of Fish and Game. They didn’t recognize it either and turned to members of the Alaska Historic Canneries Initiative. Just what is this old fishing license plate all about anyway?
A quick historical review turned up nothing in the federal Fish & Wildlife or Halibut Commission regulations that explain the plates. But a deeper look into the territorial records suggest a story that begins with the formation of the Alaska Department of Fisheries, the growing Alaska statehood movement, passage of new fish tax legislation, and ends up in the U.S. Supreme Court.
First to back up a bit, the years after World War II saw rapid growth of the Alaska statehood movement. The Territorial Legislature took a number of steps to organize and fight for Alaska interests. Among these, in 1949, was creation of the Alaska Department of Fisheries. The first Fish Board was appointed and Clarence L. “Andy” Anderson was named its first director. The Territorial Legislature appropriated $250,000 for the new department.
But how could Alaska pay for it? The territory already taxed fish catches. Back then, salmon played the role that oil later played. Fish taxes provided 80% of the revenues for the territorial government and the services it provided. Salmon canneries generated most of that: 4 percent of the value of raw fish. Fish traps were also heavily taxed: $1,200 per trap permit, plus 5 to 25 cents per fish on top of that, depending on volume, and even more. This was partly punitive. Alaskans hated fish traps and taxing them heavily was a profitable way to discourage traps.
Complicating matters, salmon runs – and raw fish tax revenues – declined sharply after the war. The Legislature formed the new Department of Fisheries to reverse that decline and encourage more local participation in the fisheries. On the same day the Territorial Legislature created the Department of Fisheries, March 21, 1949, they also approved a new tax on commercial fishermen: $5 for resident fishermen and $50 for non-resident fishermen.
It was a huge success. In its first full year of implementation, 1950, the tax on fishermen raised $290,000, enough to pay for the new department and more, and 86 percent was paid by non-residents. However, the wide disparity in the tax rate for resident and non-resident fishermen immediately raised legal red flags. Preferences like this and other popular “local hire” laws quickly run afoul with the U.S. Constitution’s protection for interstate commerce.
The Seattle-based Alaska Fishermen’s Union immediately sued the territory in what became known as Mullaney v. Anderson, the latter being Andy Anderson, the new director of fisheries. The Territorial District Court initially upheld the tax. Alaskans generally thought non-residents who made their livelihoods in fishing, mining, and other extractive industries, should pay more. But on appeal, the 9th Circuit Court soon reversed that decision. And with incredible speed, the case went before the U.S. Supreme Court in the spring of 1952.
The territory raised a variety of legal arguments in support of the tax differential, including that Alaska was a territory, not a state. But Chief Justice Felix Frankfurter rejected them all. He agreed with the 9th Circuit that the same constitutional provisions for interstate commerce also applied to territories, and ruled the different tax rates for resident and non-resident fishermen violated the Privileges and Immunities Clause of Article IV, 2 of the U.S. Constitution. After losing its case, the territory continued to levy the tax but dropped the rate to $5 for all fishermen. Non-resident fishermen later received refunds for the years they were overcharged.
I’m convinced the storage unit plate is connected to the 1949 tax. The plates showed fishermen paid their taxes, much like similar plates and stickers we use today to show fishermen have registered their boats, paid harbor fees, and whatever. Nothing in the 1949 law mentions license plates, but nothing else in the territorial, federal, or halibut commission regulations for that year explain them either.
If so, it begs the nagging question, why then are these plates so rare? I have lived and worked in Alaska fishing communities for 38 years had never seen one of these before. I’ve seen old triangle plates, APA asset tags, and more attached to old fishing boats but never one of these. A friend later showed a picture of a 1951 resident plate, but up to 14,000 fishermen fished annually in Alaska waters during these years. If each needed one of these plates, there should be scads of them around.
Obviously they didn’t. For the Territory, it would seem to have been easier and more efficient to administer this tax on paper. The canneries keep records of their fishermen and could deduct the tax from their pay as they did other expenses. So who still needed a license plate? Perhaps they were used more selectively, such as for trap watchmen who are mentioned in the law. Or maybe others?
Know anything about these plates? Have a better theory about who might have been required to have one? If you have any information about these plates, the Mullaney case, or just an opinion, please let us know. History grows when it is discussed and debated. More background about the Mullaney v. Anderson decision can be found at http://caselaw.findlaw.com/us-supreme-court/342/415.html.
Mullaney wasn’t the end of this story. Decades later, a similar case was filed when the state charged non-resident fishermen three times more than residents for commercial fishing licenses and permits. Known as Carlson v. State of Alaska, the courts eventually also found for non-resident fishermen for similar reasons as in the 1952 decision. They ordered refunds that totaled over $30 million in principle and interest. Unlike the speed of Mullaney, this case dragged out for decades. Carlson was filed in 1984 and after five remands wasn’t finally settled until 2012.
Special thanks to Jim Mackovjak of Gustavus who shared his Sitka friend’s photo of the 1951 resident license plate, and provided the critical link to Mullaney v. Anderson.
Rick Metzger shared this poem, which he found in the Pacific American Fisheries archive in Bellingham. There is no author attribution; please leave a comment if you know who authored it.
An old weathered cannery lay silent in death,
No signs of man’s shadow, no human breath.
Piling stubs poking out of the sand,
Caved in old retorts not looking so grand.
Jagged timbers are scattered to and fro,
As docks have collapsed over rocks below.
Where over the water bulwarks had been,
Steamships will never take cargo again.
Planks of a building that once housed a store,
Rotted and splintered lay next to the shore.
The dining hall and cook shack can’t be found,
Yet, bottles and debris litter the ground.
Tanks in the brush filled with algae and slime,
Once contained diesel and oil in their time.
Up from the beach where young evergreens grow,
Bunkhouses rest with roofs sagging low.
Through ghostly windows poke alder and pine,
Where Chinese cabins once formed a neat line.
Tarred pipe tubes lay haphazardly up the hills
Once flowing with power to run pelton wheels.
Warehouse remains are piles of bleached wood,
Next door to where the boiler room once stood.
Pipes, like stray noodles, strewn everywhere,
Rusting tin roofing, a tangled nightmare.
Time is past from the cannery’s story.
No one to witness its days of glory.
History is lost amid ruins of the scene,
As nature returns quiet and serene.
Once a harvester of all in the seas,
Now all that remains are old memories.
Cannery work is often monotonous. Standing in one place for hours, repeating the same hand motions over and over, attempting to keep alert as the predictable hums and clangs lull the worker towards dozing. However, Alice Ryser enjoyed her time at the New England Fishing Company’s Orca plant outside of Cordova. Remembering mug-up and her fellow NEFCO cannery workers brings a smile to her face, fifty years after she left the cannery.
But one incident in particular sticks out in Alice’s memory. One day, she was transferred from the reformer (which made the flattened cans into cylinders) to the seamer (which secures the lid on the cans), a yawn-inducing process. She had to do something to pass the time, so she took a pin from her hair and wrote, “Write me,” with her name and address on the lids of several cans. And don’t you know it, she got a response from a man in North Carolina. Here is Alice’s story, available within the Alaska Fisheries Report.
by Rebecca Poulson
From Russian American times to the present, boats have been built in Sitka because people needed them, and could not afford to buy them; it was not an industry producing boats for selling outside the immediate area. Another factor throughout the centuries, from canoes to aluminum skiffs, is the pure joy of building a boat, and the pride in creating a beautiful, quality vessel. Boat and shipbuilding in Sitka, and the builders and their backgrounds and activities, reflect Sitka’s varied history and economy. While it’s always fun to build a boat, usually you need an economic excuse for it, too.
The Russians of the Russian American Company built at least 27 ships, most of them about the size of large fishing boats today. A few of the ships were fairly large, and included the first steamer built on the west coast of North America.
After Alaska became part of the United States in 1867, American entrepreneurs built sailing ships and boats for fishing, mining, or trading enterprises, but this boatbuilding activity was sporadic, reflecting the varied and unstable economy of that time, mainly trade and prospecting. Once fisheries became a mainstay of Sitka’s economy after the turn of the century, hundreds of boats were built, not only fishing boats but pleasure boats and others. Through the 1920s, 1930s and 1940s there were at least eight boat shops in Sitka at various times. All of the builders did other things as well, like fishing, carpentry, or mining.
The vast majority of boats built in Sitka were fishing boats. These included trollers, seiners, and longliners. The fisheries were segmented largely along ethnic lines. While Natives have always been trollers, most of the troll fleet has historically consisted of men who came here from somewhere else, including many European immigrants in the first half of the 20th century. Longliners in southeastern Alaska were overwhelmingly Scandinavian, based out of Puget Sound.
And salmon seiners, and the men who built the seine boats in Sitka, were Alaska Native. When the fishing tapered off, boatbuilding declined too. In the peak years of Sitka boatbuilding, there was demand for boats, materials were available, and time was cheap, which is not the case today. The decline of wooden boatbuilding in Sitka followed the pattern in the United States generally. Both labor and high-quality old-growth wood have become relatively expensive. Wooden boats are being replaced by fiberglass, aluminum and steel ones.
A major factor in Sitka’s boatbuilding was the canneries, which directly financed many of the boats, as well as employing and buying fish from Alaska Natives. This economic integration, and the status that comes with being a successful fisherman or boatbuilder in a fishing community, might even have been a factor in the development of Native political power.
The following is an account of some of the Native builders through the 1920s. Many more fishing boats were built through the 1950s, but this is an account of the earliest years.Sitka’s first cannery started up in 1878,1 and fishing gradually became an important industry. But it was not until decades later, after the turn of the century, that fishing boats of any size were built here. Records are available of decked vessels of over five net tons, which for a motorized vessel is about a 32-foot-long boat. Very few vessels were recorded as built in Sitka before 1915, but between 1915 and 1930, at least 43 were built here, almost all fishing boats.2 A total of 20 of these larger boats were documented in the three years between 1917 and 1919. It was around this time that gasoline engines revolutionized the process of seining (pulling a net round a school of fish).
By 1889 there were already 13 canneries in southeastern Alaska, including one near Sitka, at Redoubt.3 But the early seining (catching fish with a net, towed around a school of fish) was done with large rowboats, which apparently were supplied by the canneries, and the fish were carried on steamers to the cannery.
After the turn of the century, however, gas engines were rapidly adopted in the salmon seine fishery.4 Many of the gas seiners used out of Sitka were built here. The earliest seine boats were large flat-bottomed open boats, propelled by oars, and nets were pulled by hand. Engines were introduced on seiners on Puget Sound soon after the turn of the century. According to Herman Kitka Sr., in 1914 Tom Sanders Jr. fished a motorized seiner, the COMET, that had been brought up from Puget Sound, for Deep Sea Salmon Company. He outfished everybody, and soon all the seiners had engines.
Herman Kitka says that the earliest motorized seiners had loose decks of 2 x 12’s which were picked up to empty the hold. This was not the case for more than a couple of years, because of the problem with rain water and snow in the boat in the winter.5 Many of the seiners built in Sitka over the years were financed by the canneries. Sometimes they were built for the cannery, and sometimes they were built for an individual fisherman, who would help build the boat. The canneries had boats built for good producers, obligating the fisherman to fish for that cannery to repay the debt. Some fishermen would eventually buy their boats, but others fished on cannery boats indefinitely.
In the 20th century there were canneries (with various names and owners) in Sitka itself (Pyramid), at Sitkoh Bay (George T. Myers, Chatham) and Lindenberg Head (Todd) in Peril Strait, and at Ford Arm (Deep Sea Salmon Company) on the west side of Chichagof Island. The late Herman Kitka, Sr., a Tlingit boatbuilder and fisherman, said that his father, Frank Kitka, built the NECKERBAY, documented 1915, for John Young; OLYMPIC, 1918, for himself; ZINGO, 1918, for John Joseph, financed by the Deep Sea Salmon Company; BUSY BEE, 1919, for George T. Myers (cannery); and the ATLAS, his last boat, for himself in 1920, documented 1922. He also built the PTARMIGAN and the DIXIE, which may have been too small to document. He first built in a shop at the old Brady sawmill, near the present Thomsen Harbor. When that building collapsed, he built boats in a shop on Charcoal Island, which had machinery powered by a gas engine. That shop was on the beach below the site of the current Shee Atika Business Center Building, and burned down before the military took over the island.
This same shop was used by Hoonah boatbuilder Johnny Lawson, to build the PERSEVEARANCE, documented in 1927, and the O.K., documented in 1929.6 Frank Kitka built his last boat, the ATLAS, in 1920, on Katlian Street. Both the ATLAS and the earlier boat OLYMPIC were built for himself, because his main occupation was as a fisherman.7
Another Tlingit builder, George Howard, in 1912 or 1914 built his own shop and house on Katlian Street, on the town side of what is now the Seafood Producers Cooperative plant.8 The earlier shop was much smaller than the one which replaced it in 1940, and was only big enough to build the hull of the boat and not the superstructure.9 The house and shop were torn down in the summer of 1990.George Howard probably built the ACTIVE, documented in 1917, for himself and his sons, and he built the U & I, documented 1919.
Every summer the Howards closed up shop and went fishing. George Howard built the large seiner PROGRESS, documented in 1923, for himself, his sons, and son-in-law Andrew Hope.10 Herman Kitka Sr. said that Peter Simpson, who was Tsimshian and who lived and worked at the Cottages, built the DREADNAUGHT, 1915, for Myers Cannery, for Jimmy Keunz; the ALBATROSS, 1917, for John Cameron, another resident of the Cottages; the BARANOFF, 1918, for Ralph Young, of the Cottages; the EAGLE, 1919 for Pyramid Packing Company; the MARY WARD, 1919, for Deep Sea Packing Company for George Ward; and the KATHARINE, 1919, for Deep Sea.11
The Cottages was a model Christian community for Alaska Natives on the Presbyterian mission school grounds. It is adjacent to the Sitka National Historical Park, and Simpson’s boat shop was on the small point of land where Merrill Rock is today. Simpson is said to have built the MOONLIGHT, 1918, although the documentation lists her owner, Edward Grant, as the builder. Grant fished the boat into the 1940s, when he was killed aboard the boat when his neck scarf caught in the exposed engine. It was beached on Graveyard Island at Hoonah, until bought by a troller, Pete Moe.12 The MOONLIGHT is still fishing; the boat was completely rebuilt in 1979. By that time she was in rough shape from lack of maintenance from a series of owners. Her present owner says that before the rebuild the boat was unusually lightly built, with widely spaced frames, and no floors, the pieces which join the pairs of ribs.13 This might indicate the speed with which these boats were built, although it may be a characteristic only of this particular boat.
Peter Simpson built the troller SMILES, documented in 1920.14 According to the 1920 census, Cottages residents Raymond James and Simpson’s son Louis Simpson were building boats with Simpson.15 He also advertised in 1925: “NOTICE Order your trolling boats from the Simpson Shop, Peter Simpson.”16 But in 1922, 1923, and 1924, he is only mentioned as a sealer (one of the most successful), and fisherman in the newspaper, and he also advertised his boat, the ALCO, for hire.17 He could have been building trollers, which at that time were too small to require federal documentation. Boatbuilder Louis Simpson, Peter Simpson’s son, died at the age of 40 in 1936 in a flu epidemic, of pneumonia.18
Andrew Hope, a Tlingit man and the best-known boatbuilder in Sitka, was very active by the end of the 1920s. In the 1920s and 1930s, documents name him as builder of the BIORKA and STARLIGHT, documented in 1927; the PYRAMID, 1929; the NEPTUNE, 1930; BUDDY, 1931; and the ADMIRALTY, 1938.19 He probably had a hand in building others for which there are no records.
The NEPTUNE was built for and to some extent by “Cap” Pavloff, behind where the Wells Fargo bank is now. Pavlof used the boat for fishing and for running to his homeplace of Kodiak or beyond. Pavlof had been a captain of trading vessels in Alaska.20 Hope built the ADMIRALTY for George James of Angoon. This boat was a copy of another Angoon boat, the seiner U & I, maybe the boat George Howard built in 1919, although there were two boats with that name.21
Herman Kitka said that even in the early days, most builders used Douglas fir, shipped on the steamers from Seattle air-dried, and that not too many builders cut their own wood.22 This was apparently most often the case with the cannery financed boats. For political and economic reasons the sawmill industry has never thrived here. For a long time after the purchase of Alaska cutting wood commercially on government land was not legal, and then when it was legal, the law was hazy and export from the state was still illegal.23 In some years there was no operating sawmill in Sitka. By contrast, the logging industry in Washington and Oregon was large, competitive, and organized. Even today Douglas fir, from Washington and Oregon, is readily available, while lumber from local trees is very difficult to obtain.
So a fisherman building his own boat might take the time to cut and mill his own lumber, but if money was available – as was the case with cannery financing – it was easier to buy wood from south. The fisheries and the canneries declined after World War II, for many reasons, and very few boats were built after the mid 1950s. But for a while, you could walk down Front Street, in Sitka’s Indian Village, and hear craftsmen using the Tlingit language, as they ran machinery and caulked seams. Mingled with the familiar aroma of the tides and fish, you might catch the scent of Douglas fir and oak and yellow cedar shavings. We can only imagine.
1 . R. N. DeArmond, A Sitka Chronology (Sitka, Alaska: Sitka Historical Society, 1993)
2 Merchant Vessels 1921, 1928, 1941.
3 . Alaskan, 13 April 1889, p. 1 (number of canneries 1889).
4 . Homer E. Gregory and Kathleen Barnes, North Pacific Fisheries, with Special Reference to Alaska Salmon (San Francisco: American Council Institute of Pacific Relations, 1939), p 24 (gas engines spread)
5 Herman Kitka, interviews by the author, tape recordings, Sitka, Alaska, October and December 1988 and March 3 1992 (early seiners, financing, the first seiner) The Comet was later rebuilt by Frank Kitka’s brother Peter Kitka in 1926 – Kitka interview 3/92
6 Herman Kitka Sr., interviews October, December 1988 and March 1992.
7 Herman Kitka, interviews October, December 1988 (Atlas) and March 1992.
8 George Howard Sr., interview by author, tape recording, Sitka, Alaska, November, 1988; George Howard Sr. and Louie Howard, interview by author, tape recording, Sitka, Alaska, December 1988; and George Howard Sr., interview by author, tape recording, Sitka, Alaska, July 1990 (shop, house built 1912); City Deeds #542 Book 2, granted 2 May 1914 (to build); Thlinget, March 1912, p. 2 (many new boats from H and S shops, latest 35-footer with red & y c tender); Thlinget, May 1912, p. 4 (H busy all the time).
9 Kitka interview (first Howard shop small)
10 Tribune, 23 June, 1922 (going fishing); 24 September 1923 (back from fishing); Coast Guard Vessel Documentation (Progress).
11 . Tribune 23 June 1922 (Willard), Kitka 1992 (boats built by Simpson).
12 . Pat Wood, phone interview by author, 16 November 1988; Merchant Vessels 1921, 1928, 1941, 1948.
13 . ibid.
14 . Mark Jacobs Jr., interviews by author, tape recordings, Sitka Alaska, November, December 1988 (Smiles built by Simpson).
15 . 1920 Census (Simpson, others boatbuilders, Cottages).
16 . Tribune, 29 February 1925, p. 4, and passim (Simpson ad).
17 . Tribune 27 October 1922 (fishing Alco); 16 March 1922, p. 4 (Alco for hire). Tribune, 26 May 1922
(sealing); Tribune, 9 June 1922 (high boat seals).
18 City of Sitka Death Certificates (Louis Simpson).
19 .Coast Guard Vessels Documentation (boats built by Hope)
20 Sentinel 5 Dec 1947 (obit); John Bahrt, interviews by author, tape recording, Sitka, Alaska, November and December 1988 (to go to Kodiak); Greg Cushing, phone interview by author 16 November 1988 (built at NBA); Coast Guard Vessels Documentation (built by Hope).
21 Mo Johnson interview by author, tape recording, Sitka, Alaska January 17 1988 (Admiralty copy of U&I)
22 Kitka interview 3/92 (early builders used fir).
23 Hinckley, pp 126-28, 133, 144-46 (legality of wood cutting in late 1880s, 1890 Brady shut down) p 145 (1891 Lands Act still not clear on timber use).
by Anjuli Grantham
Spring arrived in Kodiak along with the first real snow fall of the year. Here is a quick run-down on recent Alaska Historic Canneries Initiative activities.
We received 16 applications for our small grant program, and we awarded seven grants. The recipients are:
– Deanna Baier of Dillingham, for an oral history project with 4-H
– Rick Metzger and Woody Knebel, for researching the Alitak Cannery on Kodiak Island
– Sitka History Museum, for radio programming on local seafood industry history
– Kodiak Historical Society, for printing oral histories and producing the “West Side Stories” exhibit
– Bob King and Katie Ringsmuth, for a preservation assessment of the Diamond NN cannery in South Naknek
– Tenakee Historical Collections, for cataloging their Superior Canning Company objects and archives
Congratulations to the recipients, and many thanks to our grant committee (Jo Antonson, Christine Marasigan, Rachel Mason, and Ross Coen).
We received a grant from American Seafoods for the initiative and just sent out a fundraising appeal letter to AHS members and individuals/ organizations within the seafood industry. You likely received your letter in the mail this weekend.
I presented on the initiative at the Kodiak National Wildlife Refuge Visitor Center and at the Fisher Poets Gathering in Astoria, Oregon last month. At the end of the month, I am heading to Craig to speak at their Whale Fest. I haven’t been to Prince of Wales Island before, and I am very much looking forward to checking out this part of Southeast and the old Wards Cove cannery that is right in town.
Next week, Toby Sullivan and I are joining others to present a session on cannery history at Comfish in Kodiak. The Kodiak Maritime Museum will have information about the cannery initiative at their Comfish booth, including the materials designed by Katie Ringsmuth for the Pacific Marine Expo booth. Tomorrow, Toby and I will be interviewed on KMXT’s Talk of the Rock as a preview for the Comfish forum.
Planning has started for the next AHS/ MA conference, which will be held in Juneau, September 21-24. The theme is “Exploring Alaska’s Past in the Pacific World.” Fisheries and cannery history fit into this quite nicely. Juneau will be a wonderful location for the conference, especially since we can visit the new Father Andrew P. Kashevaroff State Library, Archives and Museum Building and Sealaska Heritage Institute.
Moreover, I’m hoping that we can engage with ADF&G, NOAA, UA Southeast, and the many other fisheries-related organizations to create sessions that explore the interdisciplinary possibilities of fisheries history. Attached please find the Call for Proposals. Proposals are due May 1.
Please keep me posted on your own cannery history news and projects and let me know if you have any questions about initiative activities.
Thanks for all of your work and all of your support!
P.S. Thanks to all who have been contributing to the blog, and especially to Pennelope Goforth for serving as editor!