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Fri, October 11, 2013

Lewis MacDonald’s Alaska Salmon Cannery Chronology, 1878-1950


[Note: Thank you to Jim Mackovjak for condensing MacDonald’s three reports into one, searchable document. You may find entries that are incorrect or incomplete. This is your opportunity to correct MacDonald’s chronology and add to it. Please leave a comment if you notice factual errors or have additional information.]
Introduction
In March 1949, Alaska’s Territorial Legislature created the Alaska Department of Fisheries. The new department’s mission was to assist in conservation and perpetuation of the territory’s fisheries resources; to promote resident ownership, management and control of the fisheries; and to cooperate with the U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service. C.L. Anderson, a Seattle-based fisheries biologist who had a substantial understanding of fishing methods and fish processing, was hired as director of the new agency. Anderson selected Lewis MacDonald, a former enforcement officer with the Fish & Wildlife Service in Alaska who had broad knowledge of Alaska’s commercial fisheries, as fishery supervisor. MacDonald was in charge of field work, including enforcement, and was the agency’s liaison with the Fish & Wildlife Service. He was also interested in the history of Alaska’s fisheries, and his chronology of Alaska’s salmon canneries—incorporated serially into the annual reports of the Alaska Department of Fisheries for the years 1949 (Southeast Alaska), 1950 (Western Alaska), and 1951 (Central Alaska)—are a valuable contribution to Alaska’s history and a fundamental reference for historical research regarding Alaska’s canneries.
Jim Mackovjak, October 2013
Part One:Chronological History of Salmon Canneries in Southeastern Alaska[1]
Compiled by Lewis G. MacDonald from records of the Bureau of Fisheries, Fish & Wildlife Service and other sources.
Long before the advent of the white man in Alaska, the native inhabitants utilized a small fraction of the abundant fisheries. The early Russian American Company shipped a few thousand barrels of choice salt fish to California and St. Petersburg. From Redoubt Lake, near Sitka, they supplied a large local area with red salmon without providing for sufficient escapement, thereby depleting the run there.
Salteries preceded the canneries. There was a saltery at Klawock before the first cannery was constructed there.
Mortality among the salmon canneries in Southeastern Alaska has been high. During the years, 1878-1949, covered by the following history, 134 canneries were built; 65 burned and were not rebuilt; five burned and were rebuilt; ten were moved to other sites; some operations were consolidated. There were 37 operating plants in Southeastern Alaska in 1949.
1878
It was not until eleven years after the United States purchased Alaska from Russia that the first cannery was built at Klawock by the North Pacific Trading and Packing Co. in 1878. It was operated until 1929 when Libby, McNeill & Libby bought it, operated it in 1929-30 and then closed it permanently.
The Cutting Packing Co. also built a cannery in 1878, but at Sitka. This cannery operated until 1880 when it was dismantled and moved to Cook Inlet.
1882
Chilkat Packing Co. (M. J. Kinney); Chilkat Inlet; burned 1892.
1883
Northwest Trading Co.; Pyramid Harbor (Chilkat Inlet); 1888 sold to D. L. Beck & Sons; burned 1889; rebuilt; sold to Alaska Packers 1893; abandoned 1908.
Fox Packing Co. (M. J. Kinney); Boca de Quadra; sold to Tongass Packing Co. and moved to Ketchikan 1886; burned 1889.
1887
Aberdeen Packing Co.; mouth of Stikine River; moved as Glacier Packing Co. to Pt. Highfield (Wrangell Is.) 1889; joined Alaska Packers 1893; closed 1927.
Boston Fishing & Trading Co. (Ford, Rhode & Johnson); Yes Bay; first operated 1889; sold to Pacific Packing & Navigation Co. 1901; sold to Northwestern Fisheries 1904; sold to C. A. Burkhart 1906; sold to Alaska Consolidated Canneries 1922; closed 1928.
1888
Cape Lees Packing Co. (Andrew and Benjamin Young); Burroughs Bay; closed 1890; sold to Alaska Packers, dismantled 1893.
Cutting Packing Co. (Alaska Salmon Packing & Fur Co.); Loring; joined Alaska Packers 1893; closed 1930.
1889
Astoria & Alaska Packing Co.; Pavlof Harbor; moved to Pt. Ellis 1890.
Baranof Packing Co.; Redoubt; moved to Red Fish Bay 1890.
Thlinket Packing Co.; Pt. Gerad (Wrangell Is.); sold to Pacific Packing & Navigation Co. 1901; closed 1902.
Chilkat Canning Co.; Chilkat Village; joined Alaska Packers 1893; later dismantled.
1890
Bartlett Bay Packing Co.; Bartlett Bay; crude packed 4,300 cases; ice from Glacier Bay halted operations 1891; sold to Alaska Packers 1893; dismantled.
Annette Island Packing Co.; Metlakatla; owned by the Village; burned; rebuilt; still operating.
1891
Boston Fishing & Trading Co.; Pt. Ellis; burned 1892. Baranof Packing Co.; Red Fish Bay (equipment from Redoubt plant); sold to Alaska Packers 1898; dismantled.
1896
Pacific Steam Whaling Co.; Hunters Bay; joined Pacific Packing & Navigation Co. 1901; closed 1904; sold to Northwestern Fisheries, Inc. 1905; closed finally 1930; plant sold to Pacific American Fisheries 1933 but not operated.
Quadra Packing Co.; Mink Arm (Boca de Quadra); sold to Pacific Packing & Navigation Co. 1901; closed 1904-05; sold to Northwestern Fisheries 1906; reopened 1907; closed 1931; plant sold to Pacific American Fisheries 1933 but not reopened.
1899
Icy Straits Packing Co. (stockholders of the Quadra Packing Co.) Petersburg; sold to Pacific Packing & Navigation Co. 1901; closed 1903-05; sold to Northwestern Fisheries 1905; sold to Norway Packing Co. 1906; taken over by Petersburg Packing Co. 1915; sold to Pacific American Fisheries 1929; operating.
1900
Western Fisheries Co.; Dundas Bay; sold to Pacific Packing & Navigation Co. 1901; sold to Northwestern Fisheries 1905; closed, 1931; sold to Pacific American Fisheries 1932 but not operated.
Royer Warnock Packing Co.; Beecher Pass; operated one year.
Taku Fishing Co.; southern shore Port Snettisham; sold to Pacific Packing & Navigation Co. 1901; closed 1902.
Chilkoot Packing Co.; head of Chilkoot Inlet; sold to Pacific Packing & Navigation Co. 1901; closed 1904.
Taku Packing Co.; Taku Inlet; joined Pacific Packing & Navigation Co. and closed 1904.
Fidalgo Island Packing Co.; Ketchikan; operating.
1901
Thlinket Packing Co.; Santa Anna; no operation 1903-05; sold to
Northwestern Fisheries 1905; closed 1920; plant sold to Pacific American Fisheries 1933; abandoned 1938.
Union Bay Packing Co.; Ken Bay (Affleck Canal); plant moved to
Bristol Bay 1904.
Pacific Coast & Norway Packing Co.; Tonka; moved to Petersburg 1906.
F. C. Barnes; Lake Bay; sold to Columbia River Packers 1929; closed 1930.
San Juan Fishing & Packing Co.; Taku Harbor; (cannery and cold storage plant); sold to Pacific Cold Storage Co. 1903; leased to Taku Alaskan Packing Co. 1906; leased to John L. Carlson & Co. 1907; sold to Carlson 1911; sold to Libby, McNeill & Libby 1918; operated to 1947 still maintained.
Chatham Straits Packing Co.; Sitkoh Bay; sold to Pacific Packing & Navigation Co. 1901; sold to George T. Myers 1904; sold to New England Fish Co. 1929; operating.
1902
Wales Island Packing Co.; Wales Is. (near Ketchikan); island became part of Canadian Territory in 1903; not listed as American plant.
Alaska Fisheries Union; Chilkat Inlet; leased to Lynn Canal Packing Co. 1905; sold to Pacific American Fisheries 1906; moved to Excursion Inlet 1908. Kasaan Bay Co.; Kasaan; closed 1904-05; sold to Gorman & Co. 1905; burned 1906; rebuilt 1911; sold to Booth Fisheries 1915; packing name changed to Northwestern Fisheries 1921; sold to Pacific American Fisheries 1933; operating.
Thlinket Packing Co.; Funter Bay; sold to Alaska Pacific Salmon Corp. 1926; closed 1931; sold to P. E. Harris 1941 but not operated.
Alaska Fish & Lumber Co.; Shakan; not operated 1904-05; sold to Gorman & Co. 1906 (Shakan Salmon Co.); sold to Booth Fisheries 1915 (operating as Northwestern Fisheries); closed 1930; plant sold to Pacific American Fisheries 1933; dismantled.
Pillar Bay Packing Co.; Pillar Bay; sold to Fidalgo Island Packing Co. 1918; operating.
1904
Yakutat & Southern Railway; Yakutat; nine-mile railway built to fishing site; sold to Libby, McNeill & Libby 1917; cannery maintained.
1908
Astoria Puget Sound Co.; Excursion Inlet; sold to Columbia River Packers 1948; burned 1948.
Pacific American Fisheries moved Chilkat Inlet plant to Excursion Inlet; closed 1935; consolidated with Astoria Puget Sound.
1910
St. Elias Packing Co.; Dry Bay; closed 1913.
1911
Hidden Inlet Canning Co.; Hidden Inlet; burned 1920; A&P Co. built on same site 1922; name changed to Nakat Packing Co. 1924; operating.
L. Gustav & Co.; Skowl Arm; sold to Straits Packing Co.; burned 1920; rebuilt 1923; leased to United Salmon Packers 1930; leased to Skowl Arm Packers 1932; sold to Deep Sea Canning Co. 1933; closed 1937.
Tee Harbor Packing Co.; Tee Harbor; sold to Alaska Pacific Fisheries 1920; sold to Alaska Consolidated Canneries 1922; burned 1924.
Hawk Inlet Fish Co.; Hawk Inlet; sold to P. E. Harris 1915; operating.
1912
Revilla Fish Products Co.; Ketchikan; closed after one year operation.
Oceanic Packing Co.; Waterfall; sold to Alaska Fish Co. 1913; sold to Nakat Packing Co. 1924; operating.
Lindenberger Packing Co.; Craig; sold to Sea Coast Packing Co. 1917; sold to Libby McNeil and Libby 1929; operating.
Lindenberger Packing Co.; Roe Point (Behm Canal); sold to Northwestern Fisheries 1916; closed 1920; burned 1929.
Alaska Sanitary Packing Co.; Wrangell; burned 1924.
Beauclerc Packing Co.; Port Beauclerc; burned 1926.
Sanborn Cram Co.; Burnett Inlet; sold to Burnett Inlet Packing Co. 1918; sold to Alaska Pacific Fisheries 1930; idle until sold to Burnett Inlet Salmon Co. 1937; burned 1940.
Hoonah Packing Co.; Hoonah; closed 1924; sold to Icy Strait Packing Co. 1934; operating.
G. W. Hume Co.; Nakat Inlet; burned 1920.
Karheen Packing Co.; Karheen; sold to Libby, McNeil & Libby 1929; operated 1930 and closed; burned 1933.
Admiralty Trading Co.; Gambier Bay; sold to Hoonah Packing Co.
1915; closed 1923.
Starr Collinson Packing Co.; Moira Sound; burned 1929.
Sunny Point Canning Co.; Ketchikan; name changed to Alaska Pacific Salmon Corp. 1929; sold to P. E. Harris Co. 1940; sold to Nakat Packing Co. 1949.
Swift Arthur Cresby Co.; Warm Chuck (Heceta Is.); leased to A&P Products Corp. 1922; named changed to Nakat Packing Co. 1925; closed 1929.
Point Warde Packing Co.; Point Warde (Behm Canal); operated until 1921; closed three years; reopened 1924; sold to Whitworth Fisheries, Inc. 1927; leased to Alaska Associated Canneries 1929; dismantled 1930.
Pure Food Fish Co.; Ketchikan; leased to Nakat Packing Co. 1927; sold to Nakat 1928; closed 1930.
Weise Packing Co.; Rose Inlet; sold to Southern Alaska Canning Co. 1918; went under Alaska Consolidated Canneries 1922; sold to Alaska Pacific Salmon Corp. 1929; sold to P. E. Harris 1941; maintained.
Walsh Moore Canning Co.; Ward’s Cove; sold to Wards Cove Packing Co. 1914; operating. Canoe Pass Packing Co.; Canoe Pass; operated one year; dismantled and moved to Cordova 1914.
Sanborn Cutting Co.; Kake; sold to Alaska Pacific Salmon Corp. 1926; sold to P. E. Harris 1940; recently sold to the Organized Village of Kake; operating.
Deep Sea Salmon Co.; Fords Arm (near Cape Edwards); leased to A&P Products Corp. 1920; closed 1923.
Alaska Pacific Fisheries; Chomly; taken over by Alaska Consolidated Canneries 1922; sold to Alaska Pacific Salmon Corp. 1929; closed 1930.
1914
George Inlet Packing Co.; George Inlet; sold to Libby, McNeill & Libby 1927; operating.
1915
Doyhof Fish Products Co.; Scow Bay (Wrangell Narrows); sold to
G. W. Hume 1919; leased to P. E. Harris 1923; machinery moved to Lake Bay cannery 1925.
1916
J. L. Smiley Co.; Ketchikan; sold to Pacific American Fisheries 1928; closed 1932.
Tenakee Fisheries; Tenakee Inlet; sold to Standard Salmon Co. 1920; leased to J. D. Roop Co. 1922; sold to Superior Fish Co. 1923 and was reorganized in 1927 under the name of Superior Packing Co.; operating.
Union Bay Fisheries Co.; Union Bay; taken over by G. W. Hume 1923; sold to Atlantic & Pacific Tea Co. 1924; operation name changed to Nakat Packing Co. 1925; burned 1947.
Beegle Packing Co.; Ketchikan; taken over by P. E. Harris 1944.
Ketchikan Packing Co.; Ketchikan; closed 1921.
Auke Bay Salmon Canning Co.; Auke Bay; closed 1924.
1917
Baranof Packing Co.; Red Bluff Bay; closed 1921; used as saltery station.
Lane & Williams; Moira Sound; closed 1919.
Sitka Packing Co.; Sitka; leased to DeLong & Wolf 1921; leased to A. P. Wolf & Co. 1922; Sitka Packing Co. operated in 1923; sold to Pyramid Packing Co. 1924; operating.
Alaska Herring and Sardine Co.; Port Walter; closed 1925; sold to PAF in 1929 but not operated.
R. L. Cole & Co.; (north of Craig); closed 1920.
Alaska Pacific Herring Co.; Big Port Walter; sold to Southern Alaska Canning Co. after two years; closed 1922; later used as saltery and herring reduction plant.
Haines Packing Co.; Chilkat Inlet (Litnekof Cove); operating.
1918
Pyramid Packing Co.; Sitka; sold to Sitka Packing Co. 1923; reorganized 1942 under name of Pyramid Fisheries, Inc.; operating.
Columbia Salmon Co.; Tenakee; sold to Alaska Consolidated Canneries 1922; closed 1929.
Deep Sea Salmon Co.; Port Althorp; sold to Alaska Pacific Salmon Corp. 1929; burned 1940.
Northern Packing Co.; Juneau; closed 1920.
Pybus Bay Fish & Packing Co.; Pybus Bay; sold to Alaska Consolidated Canneries; 1922; sold to Alaska Pacific Salmon Corp. 1928; closed 1928.
Hidden Inlet Canning Co.; Hood Bay; sold to Hood Bay Canning Co. 1927; sold to Angoon native village 1949.
American Packing Co.; Juneau; closed after two years operation.
Noyes Island Packing Co.; Steamboat Bay; sold to Steamboat Bay Packing Co. 1922; sold to New England Fish Co. 1924.
T. E. P. Keegan; Douglas; operated one year; closed.
H. Van Vlack & Co.; Thomas Bay; operated 1918; later used as shrimp cannery and saltery station.
Alaska Packing & Navigation Co.; Pavlof Harbor; sold to Pavlof Harbor Packing Co. 1919; leased to Carlson Bros. 1921; closed 1923.
Alaska Fisheries Co.; Washington Bay; sold to Petersburg Packing Co. 1919; closed 1921; used as saltery and reduction plant.
Todd Packing Co.; Todd (Peril Straits); closed 1921; sold to Peril Straits Packing Co. 1927; reorganized as Todd Packing Co. 1942; operating.
Southern Alaska Canning Co.; Boca de Quadra; sold to Alaska Consolidated Canneries 1922; closed 1928; plant sold to Alaska Pacific Salmon Corp. 1929 but not operated.
1919
Mountain Point Packing Co.; Scow Bay; bought Alaska Clam Co. buildings and operated salmon cannery; leased to Wrangell Narrows Packing Co. 1929; leased to O. Nickolson 1932; leased to Hanseth Bros. 1933; sold to Scow Bay Packing Co. 1934; idle 1938-42; leased by Dean Kaylor 1942-45; leased to H. M. Parks Co. 1949.
Alaska Sanitary Packing Co.; Cape Fanshaw; operated 1919-20 then closed.
Marathon Fishing & Packing Co.; Cape Fanshaw; operated 1919-20 then closed.
Cape Fanshaw Fishing and Packing Co.; Cape Fanshaw; operated one year and closed.
Alaska Salmon & Herring Packers; Tyee; sold to Sebastian & Steward 1924; operating.
Hood Bay Packing Co.; Hood Bay; reconverted into reduction plant 1924.
Douglas Island Packing Co.; Douglas; leased to ElIson Packing Co. 1931; taken over by Douglas Fisheries 1933; sold to Douglas Canning Co. 1946; maintained.
John L. Carlson & Co.; Auke Bay; closed 1922; dismantled 1925.
1920
Revilla Packing Co.; Ketchikan; operated one year; dismantled 1924.
E. R. Strand; Wrangell Narrows; operated one year.
Alaska Union Fisheries, Inc.; Port Conclusion (Baranof Is.); operated 1920-21; closed 1921.
Hetta Packing Co.; Coppermount (Hetta Inlet); closed 1930.
1922
Ness Fish Co.; Petersburg; packed salmon one year then entered shrimp fisheries.
Big Harbor Packing Co.; Craig; packed one year and closed.
R. J. Peratrovich; Bayview; changed name to Bayview Packing Co. 1924; leased to Ocean Packing Co. 1932; taken over by Peratrovich & Son 1939; name changed to Peratrovich Packing Co. 1942; leased to West Coast Packing Co. 1945; operating.
1923
New England Fish Co.; Ketchikan; still operating.
Sunrise Packing Co.; Ketchikan; sold to Northland Packing Co. 1925; sold to Stuart Corp after one year’s operation; sold to Ketchikan Packing Co. 1931; operating.
1924
Chas. W. Demmert Packing Co.; Bayview (Klawock); leased to Klawock Packing Co. 1933; leased to Ocean Packing Co. 1936; idle in 1937; leased to Spencer Packing Co. 1938; leased to Bellingham Canning Co. 1940; leased to Libby, McNeill & Libby 1946; now being sold to natives of Klawock; operating.
1926
Tongass Packing Co.; Nakat Inlet; put up one pack; went into receivership and closed.
1927
Far North Fisheries; beached the floating cannery Pioneer at Hydaburg; operated until 1930; leased to F. W. Kurth, former superintendent, 1930; repossessed, floated and moved to Ketchikan 1931.
Independent Salmon Canneries; Ketchikan; started in leased building; erected new building 1929; operating.
1929
Wrangell Packing Co.; Wrangell; taken over by Burnett Inlet Salmon Co. 1941; plant not operated after 1942; Far West Alaska Co. formed, consolidated with A. R. Breuger at Wrangell.
Iverson Packing Co.; Ketchikan; (in buildings formerly used by Independent Canneries); sold to Balcom-Payne Fisheries in 1933; closed 1942.
1932
Diamond K Packing Co.; Wrangell; became Far West Fishermen, Inc., 1939; reorganized as Far West Alaska Co. 1940.
1934
Berg Packing Co.; Ketchikan; taken over by Whiz Fish Co. 1940; closed 1943. Lindenberger Canning Co.; Craig; closed 1939-42; packed in 1942 and closed.
Lane Bros.; Moira Sound (near Ketchikan); operated until 1936 and closed.
1935
A. R. Breuger; Wrangell; operated until 1942; reorganized as Far West Wrangell 1942; operating.
Hydaburg Fisheries, Inc.; Hydaburg; packing name changed to Hydaburg Canning Co. 1939; changed to Hydaburg Cooperative Assn. 1944; operating.
1936
Seaport Salmon Co.; Ketchikan (in old Steve Selig estate building); packed one year and closed.
1937
Northern Fisheries; Ketchikan; closed 1942.
1938
Dean C. Kaylor; Petersburg (in old shrimp-crab plant; Scow Bay plant leased and operated until 1946; new plant built at Petersburg 1946 and has since packed under the name of Kaylor & Dahl.
Salt Sea Fisheries; Tenakee; make a pack nearly every year to date.
1940
Alaska Glacier Sea Food Co.; Petersburg (began packing salmon in its shrimp plant); burned 1942; rebuilt; now occupied by Kaylor & Dahl.
1941
Cape Cross Salmon Co.; Pelican; did not pack until 1944; dock and warehouse were used by a floating cannery; plant leased to Whiz Fish Co. 1946 but is still owned by Cape Cross Salmon Co.
1942
Burnett Inlet Salmon Co.; Saginaw Bay (near Wrangell) in the old Port Walter Herring and Packing Company’s reduction plant; became Farwest Saginaw in 1943; taken over and operated by Grindall Fisheries 1946; but owned by Farwest Fishermen, Wrangell.
1946
Binkleys Canning Co.; Wrangell.
Lutak Fisheries; Lutak Inlet.
Fancy Packers; Ketchikan.
Smith Morrow; Sitka.
Part Two: Chronological History of Salmon Canneries in Western Alaska[2]


Compiled by Lewis G. MacDonald from records of the Bureau of Fisheries, Fish & Wildlife Service and other sources.
Since readers of our 1949 Annual Report showed much interest in the history of salmon canneries in Southeastern Alaska, it seemed advisable to continue the series in this report.
The history of Western Alaska also shows a high mortality among the canneries built since 1884 when the Arctic Packing Company located the first plant on the Nushagak River. During the period covered by this history 51 canneries were built; 36 were burned, abandoned or moved to other sites; and from time to time numerous operations have been
consolidated. 15 plants operated in Western Alaska in 1950.
1884
The Arctic Packing Co. erected a cannery near the Moravian Mission, Nushagak River, which was the start of the salmon canning industry in the Bering Sea. This company became a member of the Alaska Packers in 1901 and consolidated with the Nushagak Canning Co. at Clark Point. A double cannery was erected in 1901 at Clark Point and packs were no longer made at the old cannery.
1885
The Alaska Packing Co. erected a cannery on the Western side of Nushagak Bay, 1½ miles below the junction of the Wood and Nushagak Rivers. Became a member of the Alaska Packers Association in 1893 and operated to 1930. In 1945, the Bristol Bay Packing Co. purchased the cannery, did extensive work and installed new machinery; presently operating.
1886
The Bristol Bay Canning Co. built on the Western shore of Nushagak Bay at a place called Dillingham, about two miles below the cannery of the Alaska Packing Co. This cannery became a member of the Alaska Packers Association in 1893 and packed until the plant closed in 1907; did not reopen and was dismantled several years later.
1888
The Nushagak Canning Co. built a cannery on the Eastern shore of Nushagak Bay at Clark Point. This cannery was not operated from 1891until 1901 but became a member of the Alaska Packers in 1893. In 1901a double cannery was erected here and put into operation; still operating.
1889
The Western Alaska Packing Co. built a cannery at Ozernoy on the western side of Stepovak Bay. Packs were made in 1889 and 1890 but fish were so scarce that the cannery was dismantled in 1891 and the site abandoned.
The Thin Point Packing Co. was organized by Louis Sloss & Co. of San Francisco and operated at Thin Point, near the extreme western end of the Alaska Peninsula, until 1891. In 1893 the plant became a member of the Alaska Packers Association and was moved during 1894 to Naknek River to become part of the Arctic Packing Co.
In 1890 the cannery ship “Oneida” struck on the Sanaks while enroute for the cannery and lost nearly all of the 77 Chinese on board.
1890
The Central Alaska Co. moved its cannery from Kayak Island, near Katalla in Central Alaska, to Thin Point on the Alaska Peninsula. Operated in 1890, 1891 and 1892, then became a member of the Alaska Packers Association but was no longer operated. In 1895 the available machinery was moved to Koggiung on the Kvichak River.
The Bering Sea Packing Co. built the first cannery on the Ugashik River, about 23 miles above Smoky Point. A pack was made in 1891, then closed as the site proved unsuitable. Plant was moved in 1893 to about 15 miles above Smoky Point and operated through 1896. Cannery then sold to Alaska Packers Association; equipment moved to one of their
own canneries and site abandoned.
1894
The Naknek Packing Co. purchased the saltery station of L. A. Peterson and erected a cannery, about three miles from the mouth of the Naknek River (Naknek Village). In 1928 this cannery merged with the Red Salmon Canning Co., under which name they operated until 1930 when the cannery was closed and not reopened.
The Alaska Packers built a cannery at the saltery station of the Arctic Packing Co. on the Naknek River; moved the machinery from the Thin Point Packing Co., and are still operating under the name Diamond NN.
1895
The Alaska Packers Association built a cannery known as the Ugashik Fishing Station above Pilot Station, twelve miles from the bar on the Ugashik River. Packed from 1896 through 1907. In 1906 the equipment for Ugashik was lost in the San Francisco fire and their Coffee Creek cannery building at Kvichak was also destroyed by fire. The salvaged
equipment of the Coffee Creek cannery was sent to Ugashik and Ufe plant then operated as a cannery for its last pack. Was later used as a saltery station.
The Point Roberts Packing Co. built a cannery at Koggiung, Kvichak Bay, is a member of the Alaska Packers Association and still operating as Koggiung Cannery.
1899
The Pacific Steam Whaling Co. built a cannery on the eastern shore of Nushagak Bay, at Nushagak Village. In 1901 the cannery was sold to the Pacific Packing & Navigation Co.; then sold in 1904 to Northwestern Fisheries and operated until 1932, then leased to the Pacific American Fisheries. PAF purchased the cannery in 1933 but it was not reopened.
The Egegik Packing Co., a member of the Alaska Packers Assn., built a cannery on the left bank of the Egegik River above the saltery station of the Alaska Packers. Was completed in 1900 and has operated each year since, except for 1905 and 1906.
1900
The North Alaska Salmon Co. built two canneries above Koggiung on Kvichak Bay about 1,000 feet apart; however, only one cannery operated after 1905. Libby, McNeill & Libby purchased both plants in 1916 and operated until 1936 when a mud flat which had formed in front forced abandonment of the sites.
The Kvichak Packing Co., member of the Alaska Packers Assn., built a cannery at Bear Slough, Kvichak River, called Coffee Creek or Diamond X; last operated in 1941.
The Bristol Packing Co. built a cannery on the left bank of the Ugashik River, about 25 miles from Smoky Point; operated until 1906. Part of plant used for a few years thereafter as a saltery station.
1901
The Alaska Salmon Co. built a cannery on Wood River in Nushagak Bay and operated until 1942. Then the cannery changed its name to Bristol Bay Packing Co. purchased the old Alaska Packers cannery at Dillingham, and operated at that location.
The Alaska Portland Packers built a cannery at Nushagak River. The plant was destroyed by fire August 10, 1910, but was rebuilt for operation the following year. This property was then transferred to Pacific American Fisheries in 1934 and is still in operation.
The Columbia River Packers built a cannery on Nushagak River and are still operating. Stockholders have changed but packing name remains the same.
The Red Salmon Canning Co. built a cannery still farther up the Ugashik River from Alaska Packers. This cannery was idle from 1939 until 1942, then leased to L. G. Wingard Packing Co.; still in operation. The Alaska Packers Assn. built another cannery nearer the mouth of the Naknek River, the Diamond 0, but ceased operation in 1929. Salmon then packed at either Diamond M or Diamond NN, farther up the river.
The Alaska Packers Assn. built a cannery 15 miles above their cannery on Ugashik River; operated until 1906. Was later dismantled.
1903
The North Alaska Salmon Co. started a new cannery at Nushagak Bay at Ekuk Spit. Libby, McNeill & Libby purchased this cannery in 1916 and are still operating it.
The North Alaska Salmon Co. built and operated a new cannery across from the Alaska Packers on Egegik River. Was operated after 1913 by Libby, McNeill & Libby except from 1941 until 1946; rebuilt in 1947 and still operating.
The Alaska Fishermans Packing Co. built a cannery below that of the Pacific Steam Whaling Co. in Nushagak Bay; operated until 1913 when control passed to Libby, McNeill & Libby. Cannery burned in 1915; rebuilt for operation following year; closed in 1936 because of mud flat formation at dock.
1904
The Union Packing Co. established a cannery above the North Alaska Salmon Co. in Kvichak Bay, having moved the plant from Kell Bay, Southeastern Alaska. Packs were made until 1907 and then abandoned.
The North Alaska Salmon Co. built a cannery at Hallersville on Lockanok River, Kvichak Bay; abandoned in 1913 when a mud flat formed in front of the cannery prohibiting tenders and scows from landing at dock. Sold to Libby, McNeill & Libby in 1916 but not operated.
1910
The Alaska Fisherman Packing Co. purchased the saltery of Olsen & Co. at Kvichak Bay and converted it to a cannery; packed through 1913 when Libby, McNeill & Libby purchased this and the Nushagak plant, continuing to operate under the same name. Burned out in 1915 but rebuilt and operated in 1916. Has operated since 1917 under name Libby, McNeill & Libby, Koggiung.
The Bristol Bay Packing Co. started a cannery at Kvichak Bay. This plant burned in 1936 with a considerable part of a season’s pack. Rebuilt in 1937 (see 1937).
1911
The Alaska Packers built a third cannery close to the mouth of the Naknek River, calling the cannery Diamond M; made its last pack in 1941. Packs for this cannery were then made at NN, or at Koggiung, which was rebuilt in 1946.
The Pacific American Fisheries built a cannery at King Cove, a few miles east of Thin Point, on the south side of the Alaska Peninsula. Still operating.
1912
The Pacific American Fisheries built a cannery at Port Moller but did not operate that year. Operated in 1913 and still operating.
1913
The North Alaska Salmon Co. built a cannery at Peterson Point, Kvichak Bay. In 1916 Libby, McNeill & Libby purchased all the plants of this company. Using the machinery from the Hallersville cannery, Libbyville has operated continuously except for the years 1941 through 1946.
1915
The Nelson Lagoon Packing Co. started a cannery at Nelson Lagoon, Alaska Peninsula. This cannery was dropped from the active list of canneries in 1927 as it had not operated for several years.
1916
The Pacific American Fisheries built a cannery at Ikatan, Unalaska Island. This cannery made its last pack in 1933; the machinery was removed and the fish packed at their King Cove plant.
The Red Salmon Canning Co. built a cannery two miles above the Naknek Packing Co. on the Naknek River. Still operating.
The Bering Sea Packing Co. built a cannery at Herendeen Bay. In 1918 they sold this cannery to the Everett Packing Co., which sold in 1919 to the Herendeen Bay Consolidated Canneries. In 1933 this operation ceased and canning has been carried on by a floater.
1917
The Sockeye Salmon Co. built a cannery at Morzhovia Bay, a few miles from Isanotski Strait. In 1920 they moved to the Unimak side of the strait and leased the cannery to P. E. Harris & Co. which purchased it in 1921. This cannery was listed as False Pass after 1930 instead ofIsanotski Strait and is still operating.
The Phenix Packing Co. started a new cannery at Herendeen Bay; sold to the Pacific American Fisheries in 1923. This cannery was dropped from the active list in 1927 as they had not operated for several years. The Pacific American Fisheries built a cannery at Ikatan on Isanotski Strait; operated through 1934 when the machinery was removed and the cannery not reopened.
The Fidalgo Island Packing Co. started a new cannery at Herendeen Bay; was dropped in 1927 from the active list of canneries.
1918
The Carlisle Packing Co. started a floating cannery at Andreafsky, Yukon River; moved to Kwiguk Slough in 1919; moved in 1922 to Kvichak Bay. Koggiung River; and in 1927 the Alaska Packers purchased the cannery to consolidate with their two canneries, no longer using the Carlisle plant which was then abandoned.
The Northwestern Fisheries Co. built a new cannery two miles below the Naknek Packing Co. on Naknek River. All canneries of the Northwestern Fisheries were leased to Pacific American Fisheries in 1933 with option to purchase; none were operated. This plant, known as Nornek cannery, was purchased by PAF in 1935 and operated in 1937, 1939, 1940 and 1941. Sold in 1944 to Intercoastal Packing Co. but not operated
until 1947. Still operating under name of Columbia River Packers Assn.
1919
The Alaska Portland Packers built a new cannery above the Alaska Packers Diamond N on the right hand side of Naknek River. Sold to Pacific American Fisheries in 1934 and still operating.
1920
The Shumagin Packing Co. installed machinery in their saltery station at Squaw Harbor, Shumagin Islands. This plant was sold in 1934 to Pacific American Fisheries and still operates at this location.
The Alaska Packers Assn. started a new cannery on the Ugashik River and operated until 1939 when the plant was closed. Has not operated since but has been maintained by the Alaska Packers.
1923
The Alaska Salmon Co. opened a new cannery on the Kvichak River at a location formrly operated as a saltery. Operated as a cannery in 1923; thereafter used as a saltery station.
1925
The Nakat Packing Corp. purchased the salmon saltery of Peter M. Nelson on Kvichak Bay. Bristol Bay; converted into a cannery and still operating under the name Nakeen.
1937
The Bristol Bay Packing Co. had completed one of two new canneries, to replace the buildings lost by fire in 1936. Plant was operated during the season with six lines of machinery. In 1938 the Bristol Bay Packing Co. was merged into the Alaska Salmon Co. but did not operate. Reverted to Bristol Bay Packing Co. in 1945; still operating. (Refer to 1910).
1938
A new four line cannery was built at Naknek by the Thompson Salmon Co., a subsidiary of the Columbia River Packers. Still operating.
1947
The Egegik Packing Co., a new concern, packed salmon that fall season at Egegik and are still operating.
There have been no new installations of shore plants since 1947. [As of 1950]
Part Three: Chronological History of Salmon Canneries in Central Alaska[3]


Compiled by Lewis G. MacDonald from records of the Bureau of Fisheries, Fish & Wildlife Service and other sources.
The histories of salmon cannery operations in Southeastern and in Western Alaska were compiled for the 1949 and 1950 Annual Reports, respectively. In this, the 1951 Annual Report, a study is made of cannery operations in Central Alaska from the year 1882 when the Alaska Packing Company built the first cannery on Cook Inlet at Kasilof.
One hundred and forty-seven canneries have been built in Central Alaska in the last 69 years—investments in the “silver horde” by men of foresight and courage. Ninety-three canneries have been abandoned, burned or moved to different sites leaving a row of piling, pilfered buildings and rotting timbers, often sad reminders of lost hopes, standing against the dark timber of the wild Alaska coastline. Throughout the years numerous canneries have consolidated. At the present time 59 plants are operating in Central Alaska.
The early history of cannery operations is a story of over-expansion, tremendous investments in the new frontier. In 1889, the peak year in the establishment of canneries, 12 canneries were built in Central Alaska.
None of them are in operation today, and few operated beyond the turn of the century. Such over-expansion resulted in serious price declines, and many owners went bankrupt.
Because of the dangers of bankruptcy if over-production continued, a movement to unify control of production and marketing began. The first attempts at unified control were cooperative working agreements between a limited number of individual cannery owners. The movement grew and by 1891 almost all the operators in Central Alaska were included. Marketing pools were formed, quotas were assigned to individual plants, and many canneries were closed in order that expenses might be saved and the mounting output, which was demoralizing primary markets, might be restricted. An outgrowth of the early movement, the Alaska Packing Association, was formed in 1892. Essentially a profit-sharing organization, it included 31 canneries, nine of which continued to operate. The cannery owners were given shares in the pool. The number of shares given to each operator in the association was in proportion to the size of his pack of the previous year. The reported output was reduced by one-half; and therefore, the measure acted as an early tool of conservation in addition to stabilizing the market. In 1893 the Alaska Packing Association was incorporated into the Alaska Packers Association. The pooled canneries were valued at $1,033,850; and the individual owners received stock proportionate to the value of their properties. Led by San Francisco interests this first important consolidation included 90 % of all the plants operating in Alaska. Their combined pack equaled 72% of the Territorial output of 653,654 cases.
In 1901, the second important merger took place when the Pacific Packing and Navigation Company was formed. The new merger was a complete financial failure; and the assets were taken over in 1904 by the Northwestern Fisheries Company, a subsidiary corporation of the Booth Fisheries. Numerous acquisitions of plants were made during these early years by the well-known packing firms of Libby, McNeill & Libby and the
Pacific American Fisheries, Inc.
Following is a chronological list of the canneries built in Central Alaska in the last 69 years, from 1882 to 1951. Their location is given and the story of their operations is told:
1882
The Alaska Packing Co. of San Francisco built the first cannery on Cook Inlet at Kasilof on the right bank of the Kasilof River near the mouth. Machinery was salvaged from the Old Sitka cannery which had been erected by the Cutting Packing Co. in 1878. The Alaska Packing Co. cannery was sold to the Arctic Fishing Co. in 1885. It operated for five years when the loss of its cannery ship forced it to close for the season. In 1893, it was merged with the Alaska Packers Association and continued operations until 1905 when the plant burned during the height of the fishing season. It was rebuilt the next spring and operated until 1922. Finally, in 1938, the Kasilof plant was dropped from the active list of canneries.
The first cannery on Kodiak Island was built by Smith and Hirsh who had been engaged in salting salmon on Karluk Spit. Smith & Hirsh operated the cannery until 1884 when it was reorganized as the Karluk Packing Co. In 1893 the Karluk Packing Co. joined the Alaska Packers Association. It continued in operation until 1911 when canning operations were transferred to a new cannery in Larson Bay.
1888
Five canneries were built in Central Alaska in 1888. Four of them became members of the Alaska Packers Association in 1893 and ceased operations before the turn of the century. The Alaska Improvement Co. cannery did not join this original merger, but was later sold to the Alaska Packers Association and continued in operation at that location until 1911.
The Northern Packing Co. built a cannery on the eastern shore of Cook Inlet at Kenai near the mouth of the Kenai River. The cannery operated through the 1891 season and merged with the Alaska Packers Association in 1893.
A cannery was built on the eastern side of the Karluk Spit by the Kodiak Packing Co. The plant operated from the spring of 1888 to the fall of 1891. The Kodiak Packing Co. joined the Alaska Packers Association in 1893, and the cannery at Karluk did not operate again.
The Aleutian Fishing and Mining Co. built a cannery 500 yards west of the Kodiak Packing Co. In 1892, it consolidated with the Hume Packing Co. and in 1893 the consolidation became a member of the Alaska Packers Association. The plant operated through the 1900 fishing season.
On the south bank at the outlet of the Karluk River, facing Shelikof Strait, across from the point of the spit, a cannery was built by the Alaska Improvement Co. The cannery was ready for operation in the spring of 1888, but because of the loss of the cannery ship “Julia Ford” it remained inactive. The Alaska Improvement Co. was sold to the Alaska Packers Association in 1897 and continued packing until 1911 when all canning operations by the Packers were ceased on Karluk Spit because of the difficulty of handling pack and supplies. The Karluk catch was later put up at Larson Bay.
The Arctic Packing Co. built a cannery immediately within the entrance of Larson Bay on the north shore and operated until 1890. The company joined the Packers in 1893, and it was dismantled in 1896.
1889
The Chignik Bay Co., a consolidation of three canneries, is the only one of the 12 canneries built in Central Alaska in 1889 that is still operating today. The Arctic Packing Co. on Kodiak Island was dropped from the active list in 1936. The old Orca cannery operated until 1945 when the plant was torn down. The Odiak cannery operated until 1906. The remaining canneries ceased operations before 1900.
The Chignik Bay Co. built a cannery on the eastern shore of the Chignik Lagoon two and one-half miles from the entrance of Chignik Bay. The Shumagin Packing Co. and the Chignik Bay Packing Co. built canneries near the Chignik Bay Co. but both canneries ceased operating in 1891. The three firms reached a working agreement in 1892 when machinery and buildings were consolidated. In 1893 they joined the Alaska Packers Association. The Chignik Bay Co. is operating today.
The Arctic Packing Co. built a cannery on the north central shore of Olga Bay which is a branch of Alitak Bay on Kodiak Island. The company joined the Alaska Packers Association in 1893, and it continued in operation until 1932. It was dropped from the active list in 1936 and it is not likely that it will operate again.
The Kodiak Packing Co. built a cannery at Snug Cove, a harbor in the narrows which connect Olga Bay with Alitak Bay on Kodiak Island. The plant operated two seasons and in 1891 the Arctic Packing Co. handled their catch. The Kodiak Packing Co. was dismantled in 1893 when it joined the Alaska Packers Association.
The Hume Packing Co. built a cannery on Karluk Spit 400 yards west of the Kodiak Packing Co. cannery (l888). In 1892 the Hume Packing Co. consolidated with the Aleutian Islands Fishing and Mining Co. which had built a cannery 100 yards west of the Hume cannery in 1888. The consolidated firm did not operate after the 1892 season, and in 1893 it became a member of the Alaska Packers Association.
The Royal Packing Co. built a cannery at the head of Afognak Bay and operated it through the 1892 fishing season. It became a member of the Alaska Packers Association in 1893.
The Russian-American Packing Co. built a cannery adjacent to the Royal Packing Co. and operated it for two seasons. The cannery merged with the Packers in 1893.
In accordance with an Act of Congress approved March 3, 1891, the President, by Proclamation of December 24, 1892, set aside Afognak Island and within one mile from the shores thereof as a fish-culture reserve for the use of the United States Commission of Fish and Fisheries. As a result, the two canneries were forced to move from the island.
The Central Alaska Co. built a cannery at Wingham (Little Kayak Island) 15 miles west of Cape Sucklin, in the spring of 1889. The cannery made a fairly successful pack in the 1889 season, but the location was not ideal. The cannery was moved to Thin Point on the southern side of the Alaska Peninsula the following spring.
The Peninsula Trading & Fishing Co. built a cannery on Wingham Island. In 1891 the cannery was moved to the Coquenhena Slough of the Copper River delta. It operated during the 1891 fishing season, but it remained closed during the 1892 and 1893 seasons. The Pacific Steam Whaling Co. operated the plant until 1897 when it was abandoned.
The Pacific Steam Whaling Co. established a cannery near the present site of Cordova in 1889. In 1895 the canning equipment was moved to the location known as Orca, three miles from Cordova. Six years later the plant was taken over by the Pacific Packing & Navigation Co. When the latter’s assets were sold in 1904, the cannery was under lease to Captain Omar J. Humphrey who sold it in 1908 to the Northwestern Fisheries Co. which bought most of the plants belonging to the defunct Pacific Packing & Navigation Co. The plant closed in 1919. It was re-opened in 1928 and operated until 1932. In 1933 it was sold to the Pacific American Fisheries Co. After a four year closure the cannery was leased and operated by the Pioneer Sea Foods Co. In 1940 the plant was leased to J. N. Gilbert who packed under the name of the Orca Packing Co. After the Cordova cannery fire of 1944, which destroyed the New England Fish cannery, the New England Fish Co. leased the old Orca cannery. In 1945 the old plant was torn down.
The Pacific Packing Co. owned by Louis Sloss and Co. of San Francisco built the Odiak cannery near the present site of Cordova. The cannery operated two years, remained closed during the 1892 season, and joined the Alaska Packers Association in 1893. The Packers operated the cannery through the 1905 season and sold it in 1906 to the Copper River & Northwestern Railway Co., which was preparing to build a railroad from Odiak to the headwaters of the Copper River.
1890
George W. Hume of San Francisco built a cannery at Kasilof near the Alaska Packing Co. cannery (1882). The Hume cannery operated through the 1892 season. In 1893 it joined the Alaska Packers Association and was consolidated with the plant of the Arctic Fishing Co.
1893
The Hume Canning & Trading Co. built a cannery on the beach near Karluk Head three-fourths of a mile southwest of the Alaska Improvement Co. It was operated in 1893 and 1894 and in 1895 it was sold to the Alaska Packers Association which operated it until 1911 when the catch was transferred to Larson Bay.
1896
The Hume Bros. & Hume Co. built a cannery on the eastern side of Anchorage Bay in the Chignik area and made a pack in 1896 and 1897. In 1901 it joined the Pacific Packing & Navigation Co. which failed in 1904. The property was thrown on the market and was purchased by the Northwestern Fisheries Co. which permanently closed the plant in 1905.
The Pacific Steam Whaling Co. built a cannery one-fourth mile south of the Hume cannery in the Chignik Bay area. It made a successful pack in 1896 and 1897. In 1901 it joined the Pacific Packing & Navigation Co. When the latter failed, the cannery was purchased and operated by the Northwestern Fisheries Co. All Northwestern Fisheries plants were leased by the Pacific American Fisheries in 1933 with option to buy, but none of the canneries were operated. The Pacific Steam Whaling Co. cannery was last operated in 1932. It was dropped from the list of operating canneries in 1938.
The Alaska Packers Association built a cannery in Uganik Bay on Kodiak Island and made packs in 1896 and 1897. The plant was abandoned in 1900.
1897
The Pacific Steam Whaling Co. built a cannery at Kenai in 1897, but it did not install machinery or operate the plant until the following season. In 1901 the cannery was taken over by the Pacific Packing & Navigation Co. The cannery was destroyed by fire two years later. The site passed to the Northwestern Fisheries Co. in 1905. The San Juan Fishing & Packing Co. used the site as a mild-curing establishment in 1907 and 1908. The Northwestern Fisheries built a new plant in 1910 which operated until 1931 except for a two year period beginning 1921. The plant burned down a second time just before the season opened in 1916; but it was rebuilt in time to operate during the 1917 season. The cannery was used for the last time in 1931. It was sold to the Pacific American Fisheries in 1933, and it was eliminated from the list of active canneries in 1940.
The Pacific Steam Whaling Co. erected a cannery at Uyak Anchorage on Kodiak Island. The Hume Bros. & Hume Co. built a cannery nearby. In 1901 the two canneries merged into the Pacific Packing & Navigation Co. In 1905 the Uyak plants were purchased by the Northwestern Fisheries Co. In 1905 the Hume Bros. & Hume Co. plant burned, and it was not rebuilt. The remaining plant ceased operations in 1931. It was purchased by the Pacific American Fisheries in 1933, and it was dropped from the active list of canneries in 1936.
1899
The Alaska Salmon Association purchased C. D. Ladd’s saltery at the mouth of the Chuitna River six miles above Tyonek. They built a cannery at this location in 1900. The cannery was operated two years and abandoned.
1910
The Columbia River Packers built a cannery at Anchorage Bay in the Chignik Bay area. In 1941 this plant was purchased by the Alaska Packers Association. It is still in operation.
1911
The Seldovia Co. built a cannery at. Seldovia and operated it until late 1915, When the Seldovia Salmon Co. discontinued business by sale of its cannery at bankruptcy proceedings held in Seattle in March, 1916, the Columbia Salmon Co. incorporated to take over and operate the cannery. The plant closed in 1919. In 1922 it was succeeded by the Seldovia Packing Co. In 1923 the Alaska Year-Round Canneries operated jointly at the Seldovia plant. The Seldovia plant is still operating.
The Alaska Packers Association built a new cannery at Larson Bay at the old location on the spit. Because several ships were lost while engaged in loading and unloading at the anchorage off Karluk, the plant was moved to the new cannery at the spit site at Larson Bay. The Larson Bay cannery packed the entire Karluk catch for the association until 1939 when it ceased operations. It was modernized and reopened in 1946, but t1crsed again in 1950. The Alaska Packers Association catch is now packed at the new Port Bailey cannery.
1912
The Fidalgo Island Packing Co. built a cannery at Port Graham on the southwest tip of the Kenai Peninsula. A pack has been made each season since 1912. A cannery, which has been in operation since 1912, was built by Libby, McNeill & Libby at Kenai. The Kadiak Fisheries Co. built a cannery at Kodiak. In 1938 a modern plant, constructed and operated at Port Bailey, replaced the Kodiak plant.
1915
The Canoe Pass Packing Co. built a cannery at Canoe Pass in Southeastern Alaska in 1912 but it did not operate at that location. In 1915 the machinery was moved to Cordova where it was installed in a rented building. In 1917 the company built a cannery at Shepard Point near Cordova. It consolidated with the Carlisle Packing Co. in 1924 and continued in operation at Shepard Point. The plant was last operated in 1942 by the Central Alaska Packing Co. It burned in 1945. The Copper River Packing Co. built a cannery on the Copper River at Mile 55 and put up a successful pack the same year. The cannery used no run boats, but it had an arrangement with the Copper River & Northwestern Railroad Co. to haul fish from the fishing stations to the cannery and to bring the finished product to Cordova for shipment by steamer. In 1918 the name was changed to the Abercrombie Packing Co. The plant was abandoned in 1920.
The Deep Sea Salmon Co., which operated a cannery in Southeastern Alaska, built a plant near Knik on the west side of Cook Inlet and made a small pack. The plant was abandoned at the end of the 1917 season, and part of the equipment was sold.
1916
The Hoonah Packing Co. built and operated a cannery on Bering River. The cannery last operated in 1928 when it was leased to the Pacific American Fisheries Co. It was dropped from the list of operators in 1936, and it is not probable that this plant will operate again.
The Clark-Graham Co. built a cannery at Eyak a few miles from Cordova. The plant was sold to the Eyak River Packing Co. in 1919 and sold again to the Pioneer Sea Foods Co. in 1924. It was destroyed by fire in November, 1935.
The Carlisle Packing Co. built a cannery at Cordova. In 1922 the Carlisle plant consolidated with the Canoe Pass Packing Co. In 1927 the New England Fish Co. purchased and operated the plant which burned in 1945. The consolidated company was rebuilt and operated by the New England Fish Co.
1917
The Sockeye Salmon Co. built a new cannery at Morzhovoi Bay near False Pass on the Alaska Peninsula. In 1920 the cannery was leased to P. E. Harris & Co. who changed the name of the location to Isanotski Strait. P. E. Harris & Co. finally purchased the plant which is still in operation.
The Northwestern Fisheries Co. built and operated a new cannery at Kenai. The cannery was sold to the Pacific American Fisheries in 1931 when it ceased operations. It was dropped from the list of active canneries in 1940, and by all indications this plant will not operate again.
A cannery was built at Cordova by the Lighthouse Canning Co. It was sold to the Hillery-Scott Co. in 1919. In 1922 it was transferred to the Cordova Packing Co. which is primarily a clam canning company.
The Moore Packing Co. built a cannery at Cordova and operated it until 1927 when they sold it to the Premier Salmon Packing Co. The plant was last operated in 1936; it was dropped from the active list of canneries in 1942.
The San Juan Fishing & Packing Co. opened a cannery in Seward. The plant was moved to Evans Bay (Port San Juan) near Latouche, which is located in Prince William Sound, in 1924. The cannery is still in operation.
The Valdez Packing Co. opened a plant at Valdez. In 1921 the cannery was leased to Joseph Emel. In 1922 the Valdez Packing Co. cannery was operated by the Emel Packing Co. The Pacific American Fisheries purchased the plant in 1930 and operated it until 1931. The operation was dropped from the active list of canneries in 1936.
A cannery built by the Copper River Packing Co. at Port Nellie Juan is in active operation today.
1918
The Alitak Packing Co. built a cannery on Alitak Bay. In 1929 the Pacific American Fisheries operated the plant as the Alitak Fish Co. In 1934 direct ownership was acquired by the Pacific American Fisheries. The plant is operating today.
The Kenai Packing Co. built a cannery at Drier Bay near Latouche. In 1924 Gorman & Co. leased the plant which had not operated since 1920. In 1929 the Alaska Pacific Salmon Corporation acquired and operated the plant. The San Juan Fishing & Packing Co. purchased and dismantled it in 1938.
The Alaska Sea Food Co. started a cannery at Cordova. In 1924 it consolidated with the Canoe Pass Packing Co., and the cannery no longer operated. The plant was purchased in 1935 by a new organization, the W. R. Gilbert Co. which operated it until 1935. In 1945 the plant was torn down and machinery and materials were moved to the old Strand-Jensen Fisheries plant at Cordova where it was operated by the Gilbert Co.
1919
A cannery was started by the Franklin Packing Co. at Sawmill Bay-Port Ashton in Prince William Sound. In 1919 the Alaska Pacific Salmon Corporation leased and operated the plant. In 1920 it was taken over and operated by the Shepard Point Packing Co. The plant engaged solely in the manufacture of herring oil and meal in 1937, but it began packing salmon again in 1938. Since 1942 this plant has operated as the Port Ashton Packing Co.
The Surf Packing Co. started a cannery at Snug Harbor in western Cook Inlet. In 1922 the Polar Fisheries Co. operated this plant. In 1923 it was purchased by G. P. Halferty who carried on operations in Cordova under the name of The Pioneer Canneries Inc. In 1927 the Snug Harbor Packing Co. took over and operated the cannery which had been closed since 1923. It is in operation today.
1920
The Arctic Packing Co. built a cannery at English Bay near Seldovia. In 1927 the plant was moved to Port Graham where it put up a small pack and was closed in 1930.
The Bainbridge Fisheries Co. started a new cannery on Evans Island in Prince William Sound. The company was reorganized in 1923 and the plant was moved to Flemming Island which is approximately 10 miles north of the first location. One pack was put up at the new location before the cannery closed.
The Central Alaska Fisheries Company started a new cannery at Drier Bay near Latouche. In 1927 the Gorman Packing Corporation purchased the cannery which had been used as a herring plant. When the New England Fish Company’s lease with the Prince Packing Co. terminated in 1928, the Drier Bay cannery was leased by the New England Fish Co. which operated it until 1931.
The King Salmon Fisheries Co. started a cannery at Zachar Bay on Kodiak Island. In 1924 this plant was sold to the Unakwik Packing Co. which in turn leased it to the Pacific American Fisheries; 1928 was the last year the plant operated. In 1929 the Pacific American Fisheries Co. purchased the plant as the Alitak Fish Co. It was dropped from the active list in 1938.
The Shumagin Packing Co. built a cannery at Squaw Harbor in the Shumagin Islands. In 1934 the Pacific American Fisheries Co. purchased the plant. It is still operating.
1921 The Katmai Packing Co. started a cannery at Uzinki near Kodiak which they later sold to the International Packing Co. The cannery ceased operation in 1930 and was dismantled three years later.
1922
The Anchorage Packing Co. built a new cannery at Anchorage. In 1924 Gorman & Co. purchased the plant but did not operate it. Last operated in 1928, it was dismantled in 1930.
The Kamishak Canning Co. built a cannery at Kamishak Bay, but it put
up only one pack. The plant was not used again.
The Kodiak Island Fishing and Packing Co. started a new cannery at Seward. It ceased operating in 1924, and it was dropped from the list of active canneries in 1930.
The North Coast Packing Co. built a cannery at Ninilchik in Cook Inlet. It closed in 1938 and was dropped from the list of active canneries. It is unlikely that it will operate again.
The Hopp & Danielson Co. started a new cannery at Uganik Bay and operated one year.
The Pioneer Packing Co. built a cannery at Cordova. In 1941 the plant operated under the name G. P. Halferty & Co. In 1950 this company merged with the Whiz Fish Products Co. and was renamed the Whiz Halferty Co.
1923
The Kodiak Island Fishing and Packing Co. built a cannery in Uganik Bay. In l930 the firm name was changed to Uganik Fisheries, Inc. In 1945 the San Juan Fishing & Packing Co. purchased the plant which is now operating.
Pajoman & Trout built a cannery on Raspberry Island and operated it one year. In 1927 the company completed a new cannery nearby. Two years later Charles W. Pajoman purchased Roy Trout’s interest and carried on the operation. The cannery was leased to Apex Fish Co. in 1933 and 1934 as a herring saltery. It was sold to Southwest Fisheries in 1935 and was operated as a herring reduction plant until 1949 when a modern one -line cannery was installed. The plant was burned in the fall of 1951 but the pack was saved.
The Northern Light Packing Co. built a cannery at Mountain Slough and operated it until 1932. In 1934 the plant was taken over and operated by Mr. W. Utness. In 1939 it began operating as the Crystal Falls Fish Co. It is now in operation.
The Alaska Year-Round Canneries Co. started a joint operation with the Seldovia Packing Co. In 1924 the operating name was changed to Alaska Year-Round & Cook Inlet Packing Co. to cover joint operation of the Alaska Year-Round Canneries and the new Cook Inlet Packing Co. It operated independently in 1925.
1924
The Hemrich Packing Co. built a cannery at Kukak Bay and leased it the following year to the Seashore Packing Co. The Hemrich Packing Co. operated the cannery in 1928, but they leased it again in 1929 to the Seashore Packing Co. In 1932 the cannery was taken over and operated by the Pioneer Packing Co.; the lease was terminated in 1933 and the plant was closed.
Henry J. Emard built a cannery at Moose Point in Cook Inlet. In 1925 the machinery was set up in the Gorman & Co. plant in Anchorage and the cannery at Moose Point was no longer operated.
1925
The Cook Inlet Packing Co., independent of the Alaska Year-Round Canneries, built a small one-line cannery at Seldovia which it has operated up to the present time.
W. A. Keller opened a small hand plant at Deep Creek on Cook Inlet. In 1929 the company was succeeded by the Anderson Mercantile Co. which operated for the last time in 1932. The plant was closed permanently in 1938.
1926
A new cannery, the Alaska General Fisheries, was built by J. A. Magill at Anchorage. The plant was sold to the Farwest Fisheries Co. Inc. in 1930. The property was purchased by the General Fish Co. in 1934 but it remained idle during the 1934 season. The Snug Harbor Packing Co. put up one pack at the plant, but the cannery was last used in 1933 and it was dropped from the list of active canneries in 1938.
The Cordova Packing Co. prepared a pack of salmon in its clam cannery which had been operated as a salmon cannery by the Hillery Scott Co. at one time. The plant was purchased and operated by the Strand-Jensen Fisheries for a five year period beginning in 1932. In 1945 the plant was remodeled and operated by the W. R. Gilbert Company which transferred machinery from the Point Whitshed cannery. The Whiz Fish Products Co. merged with G. P. Halferty, and the cannery is now operated by the new firm which is known as the Whiz Halferty Co.
The Kadiak Fisheries Co. built a cannery at Shearwater Bay, Kodiak Island. The plant was wrecked by a windstorm in 1926 and it was completely rebuilt in 1928. It is still operating.
The San Juan Fishing & Packing Co. put in a line of salmon canning machinery in its herring plant at Uganik Bay. It is not operating today.
The Strawberry Point Packing Co. enlarged its clam cannery at Boswell Bay and installed salmon canning machinery. The cannery was burned October 13 and was not rebuilt.
1927
Nordin and Wik put up a small pack at their hand cannery at Nikishka in Cook Inlet. John Wik carried on the operation in 1928. The cannery was last operated in 1933 and it was dropped from the list of active canneries in 1938. The Kenai River Packing Co. built and operated a one-line cannery on the Kenai River. In 1941 the cannery was reorganized and operated as the Standard Packing Co. The Berry Packing Co. operated the plant in 1942. Operations discontinued in 1942 and the plant was dismantled.
O. L. Grimes, the Grimes Packing Co., installed a one-line outfit on his dock at Uzinki on Spruce Island near Kodiak. It is still operating.
1928
W. G. Culver put up a small pack in a hand cannery at Point McManus in the Cook Inlet area. The cannery operated only one season and was dropped from the cannery list in 1938. George Valair put up a small pack in a hand cannery at Nikishka Bay in the Cook Inlet area. In 1929 the plant was taken over by a new firm, the Spur Fish Corporation, which operated it through the 1931 season. Jake Young put up a small pack in a hand cannery at Portlock on the Kenai Peninsula, operated two seasons and closed.
H. J. Emard, who had sold his holdings at Moose Point to Gorman & Co. started a new one-line cannery at Anchorage. It is in operation.
Edward Gustan put up a pack of salmon in his plant at Point Possession in Cook Inlet. The plant was operated by a partnership. Gustan & Hartley in 1929, and by a new partnership, Gustan & Vogel, in 1930. The plant was last operated in 1931, and it was dropped from the active list seven years later.
The San Juan Fishing & Packing Co. installed machinery in the saltery buildings at Tutka Bay, Cook Inlet, and operated for three years. The property was sold to the Fidalgo Island Packing Co. in 1934. They dismantled the cannery.
The Sunset Packing Co. started a one-line cannery at Otter Creek, Cook Inlet, and operated it in 1928 and 1929. They closed permanently at the end of the 1929 fishing season.
A one-line cannery was started at Anchorage and operated by J. F. Toman until 1930. H. C. Bennett purchased the plant in 1932. It was sold to the Kustatan Packing Co. in 1934. The plant was purchased in 1937 by the General Fish Co., Inc., which is operating it today.
Nordin & Sandvik started a one-line cannery at Swanson’s Creek, Cook Inlet. In 1929 the operation was carried on by E. Sandvik. The cannery was last operated in 1932, and it was dropped from the list of active canneries in 1938.
The Trinity Packing Co. purchased buildings from the Caw Packing Co. and established a cannery at Three Saints Bay in the Kodiak area. In 1931, the plant was destroyed by fire and was not rebuilt.
The Anchorage Sanitary Hand Packers put up a small pack at Anchorage.
At Zachar Bay on Kodiak Island the Robinson Packing Corporation erected a new shore plant to replace the floater, Azalea, which had been sold. In 1929 the plant was taken over by the Pacific American Fisheries Co. 3.nd was operated under the name of Alitak Fish Co. Direct ownership of the cannery was acquired by the Pacific American Fisheries in 1934. They did not operate the cannery again, and it was dropped from the list of active canneries in 1938.
1929
The Ninilchik Packing Co. started a small hand cannery which operated until 1926. The Point Possession Fish Co. at Point Possession on Cook Inlet started a hand cannery which operated until 1931. Harvey Smith started a hand cannery at West Foreland on Cook Inlet and operated until 1930.
The West Coast Canning Co. started a hand cannery at Kustatan on Cook Inlet near West Foreland. In 1934 the Kustatan Packing Co. moved to Anchorage and took over the Toman Packing Co. plant. The plant was sold to General Fish Co. in 1937. It is now operating.
The Blue Island Packing Co. installed machinery and operated a cannery in its herring saltery building at Blue Fox Bay on Afognak Island. They packed salmon one year.
The Shelikof Packing Co., a firm organized by Roy Trout (formerly of the partnership, Pajoman & Trout), operated a one-line plant at Zachar Bay on Kodiak Island. The plant was leased in 1937 to the Kodiak Fisheries Co. In 1939 the plant was purchased by the Chatham Strait Fish Co., remodeled and used as a herring reduction plant.
Seward Fisheries, Inc. packed salmon at Seward until 1935. The plant was reopened and operated by Hagen & Co. in 1937. In 1946 the Resurrection Bay Co. purchased and operated the plant.
1930
The business belonging to A. N. Nilson of Portlock, who had prepared small packs of salmon in 1929, was included in the list of canneries. The cannery burned during the winter of 1937-1938. It was rebuilt in 1940. The cannery has been operated since 1942 by the Port Chatham Packing Co. The Port Williams Packing Co. took over the herring saltery formerly operated by S. Sklaroff & Son on Shuyak Island and converted it into a modern one-line cannery. In 1934 the plant was leased to the Washington Fish & Oyster Co. after being closed since 1930. It is operating today.
The Redoubt Bay Packing Co. (Wik & Berg) on Cook Inlet, which had put up a small pack in 1929, expanded its business. It was included in the 1930 list of active canneries. The plant operated one season.
1931
Albert and Josie Sandvik started a cannery at Uganik Bay on Kodiak Island. The plant had packed in 1929, but because of its small output, it had not been included on the list of active canneries. The West Point Packing Co. purchased the holdings of the plant in 1948. It is now operated by Herbert C. Domenici.
1932
Harry W. Crosby (Chignik Packing Co.) built a cannery on the west side of Chignik Lagoon and operated until 1942. In 1943 the plant was sold to C. J. Sebastian, Roy Trout and J. T. Jones (Chignik Salmon Co.) who reopened the plant in 1945. The cannery is operating today.
1933
The Enterprise Seafood Co. started a cannery at Ninilchik and canned salmon one year. Clams have been canned since.
The Alaska Pacific Salmon Corporation built a cannery at Sand Point on Popof Island in the Shumagin Islands. The cannery was last operated in 1942. The cannery buildings burned and have not been rebuilt.
A. S. Day started a cannery at Fort Liscum near Valdez. In 1934 the operation was carried on by the North Pacific Sea Foods Co. The cannery burned in 1936.
1934
The Cordova Fisheries Co. started a hand cannery at Cordova and packed salmon one year. The cannery has been used for packing clams since 1934.
The Puget and Alaska Canning Co. started a salmon cannery at Seldovia in a plant leased from the North Pacific Packing Co. The plant had formerly been used for canning clams. The plant was taken over by a new organization, the Kodiak Island Fishing, Trading & Packing Co. in 1940, and by a new company, the Seldovia Packers, in 1945. In 1947 the cannery operated as Alaska Seldovia Packers. It is operating today.
Herbert T. Domenici started a small cannery at Uyak and operated it until 1937. The plant was taken over and operated by a new organization, the Great Northern Packing Co., in 1938. In 1940 the newly organized Parks Canning Co. purchased and operated the cannery which is operating today.
1935
Scotty’s Packing Co. established a cannery at Hartney Point in the building which had been used for clam canning operations by S. E. Smith. Salmon was packed the one season and after 1936 clams were canned in the plant.
The Alaska Icepak Corporation at Cordova, which had been engaged in canning crabs, packed salmon during the 1934 season. In 1936 the plant was engaged only in the production of canned crabs and clams. It went into receivership in June and was sold to satisfy judgment of the court.
The Glacier Sea Foods Co. erected a modern cannery at Cordova to replace the floating plant which it had operated there, but work was not completed in time for operation during the 1935 season. In 1936 the plant was completed and put into operation. In 1940 the Pioneer Sea Food Co., whose lease expired on the Pacific American Fisheries cannery at Orca, purchased and operated the Cordova cannery which had been idle since
1935. In 1945 the operating name was changed to the Western Fisheries Co., and the shore plant was operated by Western Fisheries Co. and James W. Parks & Sons. It is now operating.
The Alaska Native Cooperative cannery was operated by a group of natives at Sand Point Village in the Shumagin Islands. The cannery was last operated during the 1942 fishing season. In 1947 the plant was purchased by G. W. Skinner, but it has never been used by the new owner and it is possible that it will never operate again.
1936
The Aleutian Fishing & Packing Co. built a single line cannery at Sand Point and equipped it with modern high speed machinery. The cannery operated one season. After the company put out a fish trap during the season of 1947, all operations were discontinued.
The Halibut Bay Packing Co., which had been engaged in packing clams at Carmel on the west coast of Kodiak Island, reorganized and incorporated as the Alaska Red Salmon Packers, Inc. Equipment was transferred from the dismantled Pacific American Fisheries plant at Uyak (1897). In 1946 the cannery was purchased and operated by the Orcas Canning Corporation. The Kodiak Fisheries Co. acquired control of the Orcas Canning Corporation in 1946. The Carmel plant is now closed.
1937
The Phillips Canning Corporation, which had put up a hand pack since 1934, started a cannery at Valdez. The plant was not operated after 1937. The Standard· Salmon Co. leased the buildings and put up a pack in 1948.
The Gulf Packing Co., a crab cannery at Cordova, put up one pack of salmon.
The North Pacific Sea Foods Co. built and operated a new cannery at Swanport near Valdez, one-half· mile from the old cannery which was destroyed by fire in 1936. In 1942 Herman J. Sontag canned salmon in this plant under his own name. After 1943 the plant operated as the Dayville Packing Co. It is operating today.
Frank McConaghy Co. operated a floater at Zachar Bay. In 1938 the plant was moved to Kodiak where it operated as a floater until 1941 when a shore plant was erected. In 1948 Whiz Fish Products purchased the plant which is in active operation.
1938
The Kadiak Fisheries Co. completed construction of a modern cannery at Port Bailey, 40 miles northwest of Kodiak. The plant was built to replace the company’s cannery at Kodiak. The Shepard Point Packing Co. used its plant at Port Ashton in Prince William Sound both for salmon canning and herring operations, although it did not operate the cannery at Shepard Point. In 1942 the Port Ashton plant was operated by the Port Ashton Packing Co. The cannery is operating today. The Anchor Line Packing Co. established and operated a small shore cannery on the Kenai River. In 1941 the company reorganized and operated as the Standard Packing Co. In 1942 the Berry Packing Co. operated the plant. In 1943 operations were discontinued and the plant was dismantled.
1940
The Ellamar Packing Co. built and operated a one-line cannery at Ellamar near Valdez on Prince William Sound. It is now operating. The Far North Packing & Shipping Co. beached its floating cannery, Commander, at Moser Bay on Kodiak Island and built shore installations. In 1946 Libby, McNeill & Libby purchased the plant which is in active operation.
1941
Alfred Jones operated a hand pack cannery at Homer. Operations were not continued after 1943.
1943
The Trading Bay Packers began operations in a small cannery at Trading Bay in Cook Inlet. The cannery is operating today.
The Nikishka Bay Packing Co. put up a small pack at Nikishka Bay near East Foreland on Cook Inlet. In 1945 the packing name was changed to Seater Packing Company. The plant is now in operation.
The Polar Seafoods put up a small hand pack at Ninilchik.
1945
The New England Fish Company built and began operations in a large new cannery at Cordova. The cannery is a modern, electric, three and one-half line plant valued at one and a half million dollars.
1946
The Acme Packing Co. put up a small pack at Kenai (Kalifonsky Beach) in 1946 but they did not operate in 1947.
Machinery salvaged from the Balcom Payne plant in Southeastern Alaska was used to complete a new cannery at Kenai. In 1947 the company was reorganized and packed under the name of the Anderson-Kenai operation.
The Cordova Packing Co. put up a small pack at Cordova in a cannery which was destroyed by fire in 1949.
1947
Cronk Bros. took over the shellfish plant of Tapley & Cronk at Cordova and canned salmon in 1947. Gilbert A. Vanborg hand packed smoked salmon in small quantities at Cordova. The Buck Canning Co. hand packed smoked salmon at Cordova in a plant which is primarily a clam cannery. The North Pacific Packing Co. put up a few cases of salmon, salmon loaf, and rock cod at Cordova. The company is in active operation. The Alaska Shellfish Company, which previously processed only shellfish, canned salmon at Seldovia in 1947. The plant is now operating.
The Kasilof Canning Co. put up a hand pack at Kasilof on Cook Inlet. The plant was operated by the Polar Sea Foods Co. for a time and it discontinued operations in 1950.
The Bear Cove Packing Co. put up a small hand pack at Bear Island in Cook Inlet. In 1950 the plant discontinued operations. The Kester Packing Co. put up a small hand pack at Polly Creek in Cook Inlet. The plant was last operated in 1949.
1948
The Mainland Fisheries started operations at Kukak Bay, the site of the old Hemrich Packing Co. plant. The Mainland Fisheries Co. purchased the holdings of the Cape Douglas Canning Co. plant at Suikshak Lagoon. They moved the machinery to Kukak because they considered it a better location. The company went into the hands of receivers in 1951.
The Roman Malach Canning Co. organized a small hand pack cannery at Ninilchik and operated only the one year. The B. & G. Canning Co. started a small cannery near Seldovia. This cannery discontinued operation in 1950.
1949
The Kadiak Fisheries Co. completed construction of a modern two-line cannery at Port Bailey. It replaced the plant which was destroyed by fire August 17, 1948.
The Ace Trading Co. acquired the old Army sawmill at Kasakof Bay, Afognak Island and started a cannery which is operating today.
1950
A small plant was installed at Kasilof by J. H. Hoekzena of Anchorage.



[1] Lewis G. MacDonald, “Chronological History of Salmon Canneries in Southeastern Alaska,” appendix to Alaska Department of Fisheries Annual Report, 1949.
[2] Lewis G. MacDonald, “Chronological History of Salmon Canneries in Western Alaska,” appendix to Alaska Department of Fisheries Annual Report, 1950.
[3] Lewis G. MacDonald, “Chronological History of Salmon Canneries in Central Alaska,” appendix to Alaska Department of Fisheries Annual Report, 1951.