PDF Resources for Teaching ANCSA at 50

Resources For Teaching ANCSA at 50” is Volume 3 of the three-volume “Guide to Sources for the Study of the 1971 Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act” by the Alaska Historical Society (2022). This guide is the result of a year-long effort to locate primary archival, published and on-line sources useful to anyone interested in learning about the 1971 Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act (ANCSA). All three volumes are available on the “Resources for the Study of the 1971 Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act” webpage.

In 2021, Michael Hawfield researched previous and existing curriculum and educational material related to teaching middle, high school and college level courses on the history and legacy of ANCSA. He has compiled this material into a single resource to assist educators who wish to include ANCSA content in their courses by providing background information, a review of what has already been developed, and provide access to basic resources. The guide presents basic resource material covering ANCSA history, introduces discussion topics with associated reference material that a teacher can utilize with their students, highlights particular courses that have already been developed, and provides links Native organization websites where they describe their histories and connections to ANCSA.

The guide includes reference and links to websites, electronic documents, and unpublished PDF’s. Links to the digital material are provided where available. Below are PDF’s of documents that were not previously available in digital form. They are organized in accordance with the order in which they appear in the guide’s sections.

II. The Act: A Monumental Effort and Break From Previous Federal Indian Policy
“Brief Interpretive History of the Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act.” William Schneider. In Guide to Sources for the Study of the 1971 Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act, Volume 1: History and Archival Collections. Edited by Karen Brewster. Anchorage, AK: Alaska Historical Society, 2022.

“Shock and Awe: Understanding Early Perceptions of the Passage of ANCSA,” Steve Haycox. Presentation at 2021 Alaska Historical Society On-line Conference, Historical Perspectives on ANCSA Session, October 14, 2021 (for video of the presentation, see:

“ANCSA at 40: Where Are We and Where Are We Going.” Paul Ongtooguk, Opinions, Anchorage Daily News newspaper, March 16, 2012 (also available at

III.  Basic Information on ANCSA’s Origins
“The Alaska Lands Controversy, A Fight Bigger Than the Last Frontier.” Chance Fennegan. The George Wright Forum, Volume 32, Number 3 (2015): 290-298.

“Tribal Nations: The Story of Federal Indian Law,” Lisa Jaeger, Tribal Government Specialist, Tanana Chiefs Conference. Tanana Chiefs Conference, Fairbanks, Alaska, 2007.

“Tribal Courts: A Historical Perspective For Bush Justice In Alaska,” Lisa Jaeger, Tribal Government Specialist, Tanana Chiefs Conference, November 20, 2009 (draft).

“The Annotated ANCSA: How the Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act Came About,” Paul Ongtooguk, 1998 (also available at

“Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act: Selected Bibliography.” Suzanne Sharp. With assistance from Irene Rowan and Jo Antonson. Other contributors: Paul Ongtooguk, Gordon Pullar, and Willie Templeton. Prepared for ANCSA@40 Committee. Institute of Social and Economic Research, University of Alaska Anchorage, 2011 (also available at:

IV. ANCSA Detractors

“Ancsa: Sovereignty and a Just Settlement of Land Claims or an Act of Deception.” Marilyn J. Ward Ford and Robert Rude. Touro Law Review, Volume 15, Number 2, Article 10, 1999.

“Excerpts from Village Journey: The Report of the Alaska Native Review Commission.” Thomas R. Berger, 1985, pp. 155-172 (used with permission of the Inuit Circumpolar Conference-Alaska, for educational purposes only).

V. Critical Discussion Topics for Students

“Alaska Native Corporations Slowly Approach Shared Revenue ‘Cliff.'” Elwood Brehmer, Anchorage Daily News, October 1, 2021: A-7 (also available at:

“Subsistence: Alaska’s Contentious History.” Anchorage Daily News, May 12, 2002: A-8.

“Sovereignty And Subsistence: Native Self-Government And Rights to Hunt, Fish, And Gather After ANCSA.” Robert T. Anderson. Alaska Law Review, Volume 33, Number 2, 2016: 187-227.

“When a Small Typo Has Big Implications.” William Schneider. Alaska History, Volume 36, Number 1, Spring 2021: 1-30.

VI. Teacher Guides and Curriculum for Elementary and Secondary Levels

“Tribal Leadership History.” A course under development by Joel Isaak for the Alaska Department of Education directed at high school level students. Draft syllabus, February 3, 2022.

VII. College Level Courses on ANCSA and Tribal Governance

“Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act: Pre-1971 to Present,” Rural Development 470/670. Audio-conference Course, University of Alaska Fairbanks, Department of Alaska Native Studies and Rural Development, Fall 2011. Instructor: Gordon Pullar.

“Alaska Policy Frontiers: Exploring Future Realities” (PADM A671 801). University of Alaska Anchorage, College of Business and Public Policy, Fall 2021. Instructor: William (Willie) Hensley.